References

References

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The seminal work on medical simulation - which provided the inspiration for this work -  is that of Dickinson (Dickinson CJ. (1977). A Computer Model of Human Respiration/ MTP Press Limited. ISBN 0852001738).

 

Some other important sources of data or descriptions of computational and/or mathematical techniques can be found in the work of:

 

Christoforides C, Hedley-Whyte J. Effect of temperature and hemoglobin concentration on solubility of O2 in blood. J Appl Physiol. 1969 Nov;27(5):592-6.

 

Christoforides C, Hedley-Whyte J. Supersaturation of blood with O2. J Appl Physiol. 1969 Feb;26(2):239-40.

 

Christoforides C, Laasberg LH, Hedley-Whyte J. Effect of temperature on solubility of O2 in human plasma. J Appl Physiol. 1969 Jan;26(1):56-60.

 

Dash RK, Bassingthwaighte JB. Ann Biomed Eng. 2004 Dec;32(12):1676-93. Blood HbO2 and HbCO2 dissociation curves at varied O2, CO2, pH, 2,3-DPG and temperature levels.

 

Dickinson CJ. A digital computer model to teach and study gas transport and exchange between lungs, blood and tissues ('MacPuf'). J Physiol (Lond). 1972 Jul;224(1):7P-9P

 

Douglas AR, Jones NL, Reed JW. Calculation of whole blood CO2 content. J Appl Physiol. 1988 Jul;65(1):473-7.

 

Glass PS, Bloom M, Kearse L, Rosow C, Sebel P, Manberg P. Bi-spectral analysis measures sedation and memory effects of propofol, midazolam, isoflurane, and alfentanil in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology. 1997 Apr;86(4):836-47.

 

Green HD (1944). Circulation: Physical Principles. Medical Physics 1. 208 – 232.

 

Hardman JG, Wills JS, Aitkenhead AR. Factors determining the onset and course of hypoxemia during apnea: an investigation using physiological modelling. Anesth Analg. 2000 Mar;90(3):619-24.

 

Hardman JG, Wills JS, Aitkenhead AR. Investigating hypoxemia during apnea: validation of a set of physiological models. Anesth Analg. 2000 Mar;90(3):614-8.

 

Kelman GR. (1966) Digital computer subroutine for the conversion of oxygen tension into saturation. J Appl Physiol. 1966 Jul;21(4):1375-6.

 

Kelman GR (1967). Digital computer procedure for the conversion of PCO2 into blood CO2 content. Resp. Physiol. 3, 111-115.

 

Kirklin JW and Barratt-Boyes BG. 'Cardiac Surgery'. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1993:61-127.

 

Lewis RP, Rittogers SE, Froester WF, Boudoulas H. A critical review of the systolic time intervals. Circulation. 1977 Aug;56(2):146-58.

 

Maitre PO, Shafer SL. A simple pocket calculator approach to predict anesthetic drug concentrations from pharmacokinetic data.  Anesthesiology. 1990 Aug;73(2):332-6.

 

McSharry PE, Clifford GD, Tarassenko L, Smith LA.A dynamical model for generating synthetic electrocardiogram signals. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2003 Mar;50(3):289-94.

 

Murray, F. W., On the computation of saturation vapor pressure, J. Appl. Meteorol., 6, 203-204, 1967.

 

Nunn JF. Applied Respiratory Physiology. 4th edition.

 

Pappenheimer JR, Comroe JH and Cournand A et al. Standardization of the definitions and symbols in respiratory physiology. Fedn Proc 9, 602

 

Pybus DA, Kerr JH. A simple system for administering intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) with the Oxford ventilator. Br J Anaesth. 1978 Mar;50(3):271-4.

 

Pybus DA, Lyon M, Hamilton J, Henderson M. Measuring the efficiency of an artificial lung: 1. Carbon dioxide transfer. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1991 Aug;19(3):421-5.

 

Riley RL and Cournand A. (1949) ‘Ideal’ Alveolar air and the analysis of ventilation-perfusion relationships in the lungs. J. Appl. Physiol., 1, 825-847

 

Riley RL, Lilienthal JL, Proemmel DD, Franke RE. On the determination of the physiologically effective pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveolar air. Am J Physiol. 1946 147, 191.

 

Riley,RL and Cournand,A (1949). ‘Ideal’ alveolar air and the analysis of ventilation-perfusion relationships in the lungs. J. Appl. Physiol., 1, 825-847

 

Segers PA, Heida JF, de Vries I, Maas C, Boogaart AJ, Eilander S. Clinical evaluation of nine hollow-fibre membrane oxygenators. Perfusion. 2001 Mar;16(2):95-106.

 

Severinghaus JW. Simple, accurate equations for human blood O2 dissociation computations. J Appl Physiol. 1979 Mar;46(3):599-602.

 

Shappell SD and Lenfant CJM. Adaptive, genetic, and iatrogenic alterations of the oxyhemoglobin-dissociation curve. (1972) Anesthesiology, 37, 127.

 

Stergiopulos N, Westerhof BE, Westerhof N. Total arterial inertance as the fourth element of the windkessel model. Am J Physiol. 1999 Jan;276(1 Pt 2):H81-8.

 

Syroid ND, Agutter J, Drews FA, Westenskow DR et al. Development and evaluation of a graphical anesthesia drug display.  Anesthesiology. 2002 Mar;96(3):565-75.